Löpnr:KV18-5 Hur stor makt har publiken?

This study investigates how journalists, working at public service, are affected by clicks and statistics when they implement their professional news judgement. Today, tracking
the online audience allows journalists to see what kind of news the audience discuss on social media and what news they read or listen to at the medias website.

Theories about news judgement, media logic and gatekeeping has been central for this research paper.

In order to investigate the subject of matter quality interviews with journalist working at Sveriges Radio were carried out.

A total of 11 interviews were implemented showing that clicks and statistics do affect journalists in ways of presenting news on the webb. When comparing this study to recent science of news judgement both similarities and differences were found, but a main result was that journalists working at public service did mainly use statistics to evaluate how the presentation was recieved by the audience and how it could be done even better. When they valued news the statistics had some impact according to some journalists, but mainly when publishing on the web, and in general the statistics did not play a big part in their every day news judgement.

Löpnr:KV12-8 Tonerna bakom blogginläggen.
Löpnr:KV12-9 Publicering till varje pris?

Title: Publish at all costs? – A qualitative study of journalists´ attitudes regarding threats The purpose of this study is to chart attitudes regarding threats against journalists active in Sweden. The main question is: What is the attitude amongst journalists actively working in Sweden regarding threats directed against them during the course of their work? The qualitative study is based on interviews with five Swedish journalists that in one way or another have been exposed to threats as a result of their profession. The analysis is based on coping theories, taken from L. Englund´s (2008) thesis ”Katastrofens öga, en studie av journalisters arbete på olycksplats”. The analyze method is a thematic analysis, based on P. Burnard´s (2008) model. One of the most interesting results is that four of the five journalists in this survey claim that they have clear boundaries on when they would refrain from publishing because of threats. In the discussion the authors raise the question whether this can be seen as a threat against freedom of speech and in the long run also a threat to the democratic fundamentals of the Swedish society.

Löpnr:KV15-9 Public service i konkurrens – hur underhållande får morgonsoffan bli?

The Swedish morning show ”Gomorron Sverige”, part of public service broadcasting, two years ago changed its profile towards being more news driven. The purpose of this paper is to review the content of the program before and after the change to see if in fact the balance between entertainment and information changed in line with ambition/the charter. The measures applied have been the number of agenda items for the specific categories as well as time spend on each category – news, entertainment or publicity of one´s own product. We have looked only at the part of the morning show not specifically dedicated to the daily news. This study is based on a quantitative analysis consisting of 193 analytical units that have been individually categorized against a system of codes where each code is representing specific characteristics. What we are looking for is the theme of content, how the content is presented and the persons represented. The current debate in media suggests that even public service broadcasters are more and more influenced by a commercial agenda. Focus is moving from a focus on quality and information towards commercial interests. Opinion differs naturally and the debate basically suggests a difference in normative expectations to public service channels. One view is that news is more and more packaged and served in ways satisfying a commercial angle. One way of evaluating this is an analysis of the balance between news and entertainment in so-called mixed programs, such as Gomorron Sverige. In this program news and entertainment comes together in what internationally is known as infotainment. Gomorron Sverige is challenged with the need to live up to the demands for quality of information and news. At the same time they are expected to retain viewer numbers while competing against channels with a purely commercial base driven by popular demand. How does the public service program present the information? The result of our analysis show that from a starting point of an equal balance between information and entertainment, there has been a move towards a larger share of information based on agenda items on the show. This is true even when measured on time allocated. Time for information driven agenda items have increased by 32 percent while time spend on entertainment has been reduced by 31 percent. Furthermore, publicity of own products has increased as well. Average time for such bits have increased by 30 seconds. Before the new charter it was not common for any such bit to exceed one minute while today they can last up to three minutes. Our analysis clearly demonstrates that Gomorron Sverige has increased its share of agenda items focused on delivering information. We find it fair to conclude that the producers of the program have delivered against the new charter. The new profile of Gomorron Sverige can be categorized as informative with an informal tone. The roles covered by guests in the program have changed ever so slightly but the guests still fill the same purpose. For the most part guests visit the program to debate issues or add knowledge as subject matter experts. Journalists represent the largest category of guests and the presenters have been given more time to shine.

Löpnr:KH08-7 Lars Danielsson och flodvågskatastrofen.

Mediernas granskning av statsministern Göran Perssons statssekreterare Lars Danielsson efter flodvågskatastrofen i Sydostasien var omfattande och tonen bitvis hård. Men hur sakliga var medierna, baserat på de statliga utredningar som utredde Lars Danielsson, i denna rapportering? Hade medierna den självständiga och eget granskande hållning, som vi medborgare har rätt att utkräva av dem? Efter att ha gett en bakgrundsbild av Sveriges styrning, samt av flera berörda politiska organ och aktörer, försöker arbetet ringa in kritiken mot Lars Danielsson, både såsom den ser ut i de offentliga utredningarna och som den skildras i medierna efter flodvågskatastrofen. Genom att undersöka alla artiklar om Lars Danielsson och regeringens hantering av flodvågskatastrofen i två av Sveriges rikstäckande morgontidningar, och två stora kvällstidningar, från 26 december 2004 efter flodvågen och framåt syftar arbetet till att ge en översikt av de främsta kritikpunkter som riktades mot Lars Danielsson beträffande hans roll i krishanteringen. Denna kartläggning jämförs sedan med resultaten av läsningar av berörda statliga utredningar. 1972 etablerade den statliga pressutredningen fyra funktioner för svensk massmedia. Dessa funktioner har blivit alltmer vedertagna, bland annat av Svenska journalistförbundet. Lyckades medierna med sitt uppdrag att informera och upplysa allmänheten i sin granskning av Lars Danielsson såsom pressutredningen från 1972 säger?

Löpnr:KV17-7 Höras i media? Leg, tack!

This study is a media analysis of the representation of adolescents in Swedish news media, undertaken during the spring 2017.
Theories about diversity and representation state that the media should reflect different groups of the society. As one of these groups young people have a right to be represented in the media. However, the idea is complex since they are at the same time considered a group that needs protection from harmful portraying.
The aim of this study is to examine the coverage of adolescents in the news content of the five largest newspapers in Sweden: Dagens Nyheter, Aftonbladet, Svenska Dagbladet, Expressen and Göteborgs-Posten. The study aims to find out how often underage teenagers (13-17 years) occur, in what context and how the image of adolescents is constructed in the material. This study was carried out using a quantitative content analysis and consisted of 1789 articles. These were published in the newspapers news content during 14 randomized days during the period January 31-April 2. To guide the study and analyze its results theories mainly about diversity, representation and news value have been used.
The results show that underage teenagers occur in 62 articles or 3.5 % of the material, while the group constitutes about 5.5 % of Sweden’s population. When they do occur they are rarely quoted or pictured. Out of the 62 articles where an adolescent occur they speak in 15 and appear in photos in 12 – making them fairly quiet and invisible. Of the entire material where we can expect at least one person being quoted underage teenagers are being quoted in 1.5 %. Looking at the context where adolescents are being portrayed, 64.5 % or 40 of 62 articles are news about crime and violence. Comparing to the entire material where crime and violence constitutes 25.5 % of the articles one can conclude that the group is overrepresented in the crime category. Most of the adolescents portrayed are either perpetrators or victims of crimes. The majority is men. The results show that the diversity of the group is lacking; the individuals are rarely attributed another sex than male or female, and there is little or no diversity when it comes to sexuality, religion or disability. The idea of diversity however is in direct conflict with the idea of the ethics of the press. Those guidelines suggest that these attributes should not be emphasized at all if it has no significance to the news story.
Key words: adolescence, teenagers, representation, diversity
Nyckelord: ungdom, tonåringar, representation, mångfald

Löpnr:KV12-10 Etiopiensvenskarna
Löpnr:KV15-10 Herr Sport gräver inte En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av sportmagasinet Sportspegeln

Titel: Herr Sport gräver inte – en kvantitativ innehå#sanalys av sportmagasinet Sportspegeln Författare: Jesper Åhlander Kurs: Journalistikgranskning, Instutitionen för journalistik, medier och kommunikation (JMG), Göteborgs universitet Handledare: Marie Grusell Syfte: Att kartlägga innehållet i Sportspegeln 2014, med fokus på innehåll med ett kritiskt förhållningssätt till sportvärlden. Metod: Kvantitativ innehållsanalys Material: Analysen baseras på ett totalurval under 2014 och omfattar 51 avsnitt av sportmagasinet Sportspegeln Huvudresultat: Studien visar att fem procent av innehållet i Sportspegeln under 2014 är sådant som behandlar sportvärldens negativa inverkan på individen och/eller samhället. Den största delen av det totala innehållet i Sportspegeln 2014 handlar om herridrott och den absolut vanligast förekommande sporten är fotboll. Det är sällan innehållet fokuserar på något annat än det idrottsliga utövandet. Innehållet berör oftast idrottare verksamma på internationell nivå, med undantag för de högsta svenska ligorna i fotboll och ishockey. Innehållet har stark elitcentrering, främst på svenska sportstjärnor. Stora idrottshändelser tar mycket av utrymmet i Sportspegeln. En procent av innehållet handlar om handikappidrott.


Vi ville se hur prostitution skildras i Göteborgs-Posten. Definitionen av och synen på prostitution kan se väldigt olika ut i olika delar av världen. Vi har valt att avgränsa oss till Norden, där länderna har liknande politiska/ekonomiska/kulturella kontexter (och även samarbetar kring prostitution: NIKK-rapporten) för att kunna applicera samma begrepp och modeller på vårt material. Vi kommer också att göra ett urval baserat på artikellängd, med 450 ord som minsta antal. Urvalet görs via mediearkivet och det är också därför vi valt ord istället för antal tecken då det är vad de använder. Vi vill inte se hur ofta/hur mycket GP skriver om prostitution utan hur det skildras när det väl skrivs om det. Därför har vi valt att under en elvaårsperiod, 1 januari 1997 – 31 december 2007, ta fram artiklar som stämmer in på urvalen ovan; artiklar på minst 450 ord som på något sätt skildrar prostitution i Norden. Vi väljer åren 97-07 för att det kan vara intressant att se om det syns några skillnader före och efter att sexköpslagen trädde ikraft (1 jan -99). De texter vi får fram kommer vi att analysera kvalitativt och kvantitativt.

Löpnr:KV12-11 Ekonomisk tillväxt i svensk press:
Löpnr:KV18-6 Kvinnorna sätter HÅRT MOT HÅRT på ledarsidorna

Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine if gender-typing occurs in the editorial pages of five of Sweden’s biggest daily newspapers on two levels; the
composition of the editorial desk and the subjects which male and female editorial journalists write about.

Method: Quantitative content analysis. Procedure: We have used Moss Kanter’s theory about gender-typing and Löfgren
Nilsson’s theory about hard subjects that are traditionally covered by male journalists and soft subjects that are traditionally covered by female journalists to analyse 177
editorial articles from Dagens Nyheter, Expressen, Aftonbladet, Svenska Dagbladet and Göteborgs-Posten.

Results: Gender-typing does not occur in the editorial pages of analysed newspapers, neither in the composition of the editorial desk nor in the subjects which male and female journalists write about. However, we found strong tendencies that women still cover more of the soft subjects than men and men cover the biggest part of the hard subjects.

Löpnr:KV15-11 Hundra år av svenskhet

Bachelor’s Thesis in Journalism Title: One Hundred Years of Swedishness. A Study of Vidi, Den Svenske Nationalsocialisten, Nydemokraten and SD-kuriren Authors: Nils Gruvebäck and Rebecca Lundberg Academic term and year: Spring term 2015 Department: Journalism, Media and Communication Supervisor: Tomas Andersson Odén Examiner: Mathias A. Färdigh During the last two decades nationalist movements have mobilized throughout Europe. In Sweden the growing party is called the Sweden Democrats. During these years they have been accused of having a racist agenda, but since 2005 when Jimmy Åkesson became leader of the party, they have changed their logotype from a burning torch to a blue and yellow hepatica, their popularity has grown and they have tried to dissociate themselves from their rightwing past. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how nationalist movements in Sweden have developed during the last one hundred years. By starting with Vidi, an antisemitic newspaper from 1914, moving through the 1930’s and the Nazi party National Socialist Worker’s Party, to 1994 and the populist party New Democrats and the Sweden Democrats 2014 we want to see how these parties differ from one another – and what they have in common. By using the ECA-method (Ethnographic Content Analysis) we are exploring how swedishness is portrayed and constructed in four nationalist magazines associated to these movements: Vidi, Den Svenske Nationalsocialisten, Nydemokraten and SD-kuriren. Through a postcolonial perspective we investigate how the idea of Swedishness changes throughout the years, in relation to how the idea of the other changes. We see how the idea of Swedishness is created by how the other is portrayed, and how the two are in one way symbiotic and get meaning from one another. We also examine how media is portrayed in these magazines. In a Swedish nationalist discourse it is not unusual to accuse media for censorship, lies and “Swedish hostility”. As this study will show, the idea of Swedish hostility was vital already in 1914.

Löpnr:KV17-8 Inifrån åsiktsfabriken

Title: “Inifrån åsiktsfabriken” – en kvalitativ studie av ledarjournalisters uppfattningar om sin yrkesroll
Authors: Noa Söderberg, Jonatan Andersson and Sebastian Lindström
Subject: Undergraduate research paper in journalism studies,
Department of journalism, media and communication (JMG), University of Gothenburg
Term: Spring 2017
Supervisor: Britt Börjesson, JMG, University of Gothenburg
Pages/words: 45 pages, 18 508 words (including abstract and appendix).
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to examine how the editorial boards of Swedish newspapers perceive their professional role, their organizational procedures and their
professional goals and ideals.
Method: Qualitative in-depth interviews with seven Swedish editorial journalists, representing four newspapers.
Procedure: We have interviewed seven editorial journalists, representing the editorial boards of four different Swedish newspapers, and transcribed and analyzed them based on Jürgen Habermas democratic theories, Lars Nords theories about the future driving force of the editorial pages, and commercialization as Jesper Strömbäck and Anna Maria Jönsson have
described it.
Results: How the editorial boards choose their subjects, sources and angles are determined by a desire to be relevant and comment on issues within the news flow, to promote and be a
certain ideological voice and to write in a fashion that leads to more online reading and more clicks.
The editorial page editors are not interested in recruiting editorial writers that have become media personalities beforehand, but want to develop new writers into media personalities by themselves.
The professional ideals of the editorial journalists are partly based in a desire to form a deliberative discussion (as the one advocated by Jürgen Habermas), and partly in a participatory democratic desire to influence the public debate and the political climate.
Key words: Editorial journalism, editorial writers, deliberative democracy, Habermas, commercialization, Lars Nord, media personality


Projektarbetet om Europaparlamentsvalet 2004 syftar till att ta reda på vilken påverkan media har på valdeltagande. Som teoretisk ram har vi dagordningsteorin, som menar att det media skriver är det allmänheten tänker på och uppmärksammar. Vidare syftar arbetet till att undersöka hur rapporteringen om EU sker och skiljer sig i de olika länderna. Eftersom detta är ett val som hela EU deltar i, har vi tittat på tidningar från fyra länder; Sverige, Tyskland, Frankrike och Storbritannien. Den information som samlats in kommer från kvantitativ och kvalitativ innehållsundersökning, intervjuer och referenslitteratur. Är det någon skillnad i kvantitet på bevakningen till Europaparlamentsvalet 2004 jämfört med bevakningen av det senaste nationella valet i respektive land? Vad skiljer de olika ländernas bevakning åt? Påverkade bevakningen valdeltagandet? Hur kan detta påverka det kommande valet till Europaparlamentet 2009? För de kvantitativa och kvalitativa undersökningarna använde vi oss av åtta europeiska dagstidningar; Le Monde, Le Figaro, Frankfurter Allgemeine, Süddeutsche Zeitung, The Times, The Independent, Dagens Nyheter och Göteborgsposten. Urvalet börjar från och med en vecka innan respektive val till och med valdagen för den kvantitativa undersökningen. För den kvalitativa börjar urvalet två dagar innan från och med valdagen. Resultaten kan sammanfattas i en bekräftelse att media, oavsett land, bevakar Europaparlamentsvalet i lägre grad än vad den bevakar de nationella valen. Orsaken till detta beror på att Europaparlamentsvalet anses vara ett andrarangsval; varken partier, väljare eller massmedier satsar lika mycket på det som på det nationella valet. Orsakerna till detta varierar beroende på vem man frågar, men en unison orsak tycks vara att EU är för komplext och i de flesta fall främmande för väljarna. Intresset för EU är litet, varför media i sin tur inte uppmärksammar det och skapar därmed ett minimalt allmänt intresse. Det är en ond spiral.

Löpnr:KV12-12 Fast Food or Slow Food.
Löpnr:KV12-13 Nyhetsvärdering 2.0
Löpnr:KV18-7 ”Nu är det slut på Stockholmsfixeringen”

This bachelor thesis is an analytical quantitative content analysis of the media’s reporting of the Swedish government’s decision to move several authorities from Stockholm to other parts of the country. The main purpose of the study was to examine the media’s approach and discourse in the articles, and to find out whether there is a norm, that the media is taking a Stockholm-point-of-view in the reporting.

Through collecting written articles by Swedish web-based news media concerning the relocation of governmental authorities between June 2016 and April 2018, in total 1129 articles, we can draw conclusions about what picture that met the public. We analysed the material after content and perspective as well as the articles valuation of the relocation. We could then discuss the reasons behind the results and how they affect the reader.

We find that most of the articles published are written by TT news agency. We also find many signs of a Stockholm norm in their reporting, writing from Stockholm with people from Stockholm being interviewed, using their point of views and values. The media in the areas to where a government authority was being moved did point out positive local aspects of the decisions, but also came with different criticism then national media. These local perspectives tend to not reach the rest of the country and most readers get a one-sided picture of the decision to relocate authorities. This picture is that the government does this to get closer to the citizens and stop the centralization to Stockholm, but that the relocation itself is problematic and painful for both the authority and the people working there and at the same time an expensive solution for the citizens. The reporting tends to stop there and not do a follow up in the city to where the authority was relocated. In the end this risk to create a distance between the centre/Stockholm and the periphery/rest of the country. A sense that there is an us- versus them, a difference between people and the way they see the world.

Löpnr:KV15-12 Digitalisering och nyhetsvärdering

This bachelor dissertation is a quantitative comparative study of the effects of digitalization on journalism in Swedish quality press and tabloid press. We have studied specifically whether the difference between the Swedish quality press and tabloid press is the same regardless of the publishing platform, comparing paper and desktop. We have been studying the front pages of Sweden’s biggest quality press newspaper Dagens Nyheter and the biggest tabloid press newspaper Aftonbladet, with a main focus on the kind of subjects presented in different newspapers and how they are presented. We have analysed in total 842 articles and front page teasers over the course of one week roughly a month prior to this publication. Our main results line up with earlier studies which bear some resemblance to our own in that the differences between both newspapers in print are quite small, but that there seems to be even less of a difference between the online versions. From looking at the top news stories the differences we can see is mostly in the form of presentation and not so much in the news room’s subject choices.

Löpnr:KH08-10 Allt för alla?

Syfte: Att analysera den mediebebatt som följde efter att polisens förundersökning med obduktionsbilderna på de mördade barnen från Arboga spreds via fildelningssajten The Pirate Bay. Huvudresultat: Debatten präglades av missförstånd, tankefel, kunskapsluckor och en djup ovilja från debattörerna att acceptera varandras ståndpunkter. Debatten ledde möjligtvis till att (vissa) journalister fick en (välbehövligt) större kunskap om offentlighet och internet-teknik. Men tittare, läsare och lyssnare blev knappast klokare i frågorna efter att ha följt debatten. Debatten ledde också till ett politiskt beslut om att utreda frågan om spridning av offentliga handlingar på internet. Bland de intervjuade råder delade meningar om huruvida utredningen kommer att leda till något förslag om lagändring eller inte.

Löpnr:KV15-13 ”Det är aldrig roligt att se ett mästarlag i spillror”

Swedish sports journalism are often criticized of giving too much attention to teams from big cities in general, and particularly to teams from Stockholm. It´s also a given in sports journalism that a good performance, like a victory in an import game, should result in some media attention. But what happens when these two criteria is opposed against each other? What is most important according to Swedish sports writers; the team from the big city or the winning team? We made a quantitative content analysis on the last ten seasons, 2005 – 2014, of the top Swedish football league, Allsvenskan. But our interest was not to examine every match; our analysis is based on every match where the big city team has lost to a smaller team. During these ten seasons 241 games were played where a smaller team wins against a big city team. We have studied Aftonbladets main article from all these games and, with help from certain theoretical tools, been deciding which team has got the main role in the article. We have been studying the headlines of the articles and which team that it is mainly referring to. Adding to this we’ve also been studying who is quoted in the entrance of the article. We have been analyzing the article picture to decide which team has the main role in it. We have also decided if the article is about one specific person or about the team. By comparing our results with older studies we can say that Aftonbladet gives losing big city teams much more attention than other losing teams. Almost more than half of the headlines focuses on the losing big city team. That number should be put in comparison to older studies saying that Aftonbladet focuses on the winning team in 79 per cent of the main articles. It seems that Aftonbladet thinks it´s at least as important to be a big city club as it is to win the game. We can also show that it´s more common that an article has a one-person-angle when it´s focused on the winning smaller team. It seems that a smaller team depends more on having big name players in their squad to get attention than big city teams have. Being located close to Aftonbladets office in Stockholm is a factor that seems to be important if you are a smaller team and wants attention. The teams that have the toughest time to get attention are located far from Stockholm. They have quite the same results during the last ten seasons as many teams closer to Stockholm but doesn´t get close to the same amount of attention. We can also show that a team that has been successful over a certain amount of time has a better chance of getting media attention, regardless where in Sweden they are located. It seems though that the smaller team has to have been successful in the later years. It doesn´t seem to be enough to have won the league two times in the last 20 years to get attention.

Löpnr:KV17-9 Den lokala arenan

The purpose of this study is to examine how much of the content that is local and regional in local newspapers, with the perspective of change over time. If differences are seen, the aim is to further investigate and see which section of the newspaper that is mostly affected. Five newspapers that are a part of the same media group are analysed two weeks (spring and fall) during three separate years. Before, shortly after and a longer time after becoming a part of the media group, to establish if it may influence on the content.
To measure the amount of local articles the study used a quantitative method.
The main question is operationalized with a variable that arranges articles in the correct municipal-, regional-, domestic- or foreign area based on the newspapers individual release area. The study also contained a variable that tells us in which part of the newspaper the article is located. Its main function is to better see if any of the sections are more local or regional than others.
To understand our data this article uses theories about democracy, diversity,
concentration, ownership and economy. These theories give us a solid base to understand why the changes are happening, but at the same time they help to understand what possible effects the change in local material may have on it’s surroundings.
The results are interpreted by looking at all our collected material, and see to
how much of it that is local at any given year. 13 127 articles where coded and in total, the local newspaper remains quite local. A different result is seen when looking at the newspapers one by one, whereas most of them are much less local then before.
Two out of the five local newspapers in this study are increasing their local agenda.
Overall the news section remains local, even though it’s allowed less space in
comparison to other sections. Further, the newspapers are becoming more and more regional. The sport-, culture- and entertainment section especially.
One big discovery is the fact that the newspapers are getting much thinner,
losing half of their material over a twenty year-period.
These results are, as far as we understand, results of economic contractions and short-term goals within the media group. With the given theoretical framework, our conclusion is that it has damaging effects on the local democracy, as the local newspaper are playing a big part in serving its audience with information to build their opinions on.
Keywords: Local media, democracy, media group, media economy, diversity

Löpnr:KV12-14 Män(n)iskor på sporten.
Löpnr:KV18-8 Den politiske kommentatorn – Vän eller fiende?

Purpose: The main purpose is to examine how four Swedish political commentators lives up to the ideal of objectivity.
Method: Quantitative content analysis

Procedure: Coded all articles produced in printed press during 2017 by political commentators Ewa Stenberg (Dagens Nyheter), Göran Eriksson (Svenska Dagbladet), Lena Mellin
(Aftonbladet) and K-G Bergström (Expressen). Analyzed the results by developments of Jörgen Westerståls model of objectivity and applying framing theory to see what tendencies we could find regarding objectivity.

Results: Results are pointing to that there are a great deal of coverage that live up to the ideal of objectivity, but there are some concerns. We find that the display of politics as a game and the imbalance between parties concerning this question are pointing to a lack of objectivity. Although we would say that the Swedish political commentators strive to uphold the objectivity, they need to work harder to uphold it in the future
and strive to help the citizens understand the complexity of Swedish politics in a better way.


Semesterstängt? – Swedish media´s reporting on the earthquake in Haiti and floods in Pakistan. This paper aims to examine how Swedish media reported on the two major catastrophes occurring in 2010, the earthquake in Haiti and the floods in Pakistan. Haiti was covered by world media in a much larger extent than the catastrophe in Pakistan, even though more than 6 times as many people were affected by the floods. At the same time, the Swedish people donated five times more money to the earthquake in Haiti. Our aim was to examine how Swedish media reported on the two catastrophes and why they gave the earthquake in Haiti more attention. We also wanted to know how the editorial staff reasoned when the two catastrophes occurred, and how the Swedish people have experienced the reporting.


In this study we have looked at medias portrayal of Margot Wallström with the ambition to explore how female polititicans are portrayed in Swedish media. We have done this by a critical discourse analysis on articles from the two biggest daily- and evening papers in Sweden, with a total of 16 articles. We have stood upon the theoretical foundation consisting of gender research, media effects research and discourse research. The gender research has given us explanations and manifestations of the difference between the media portrayal of men and women. The research on media effects has been our way to firmly establish the relevance of our study in a societal perspective. And lastly, the research on discourses has given us the understanding and the tools to go through with our study. To ascertain how gender is portrayed, in the portrayal of Margot Wallström in Swedish media, we developed three analytic themes to apply on our material. Those themes are The Mans Favorite, which focuses on Margot Wallströms private and professional relationships, The Female Self-Thinker, which focuses on her role as a politician, and Politician and Mother, which focuses on her role as a mother. We found that Margot Wallström through her career as a politician has travelled from the role as a mother to the role of a politician. Her family and the matters of her private life has been all over the Swedish press over the years, and her personality has been a big part of the description of her as a politician. Although she is not explicitly mentiones as a female politician more than a few times, she is indeed seen as a woman in politics.

Löpnr:KH10-4 Personen bakom pratminuset

”The Person behind the Quote” Purpose: To investigate how the interviewees look upon their participation in three Swedish newspapers. Questions: Who is quoted in the news? Do the interviewees feel properly quoted linguistically and in terms of content? What is their confidence in the media and has it changed through participation? Using telephone surveys we have interviewed 83 people who were quoted in Dagens Nyheter (Sweden´s largest daily newspaper), Laholms Tidning (one of Sweden´s smallest daily newspapers) and Aftonbladet (Sweden´s largest evening paper). The surveys took place during five days in October 2010 (10/18 – 10/22). The questionnaires contained questions about the article that they had participated in.

Löpnr:KV12-15 Apple – när journalistik blir reklam.
Löpnr:KV17-10 ”Kalla krigets vibbar känns i ryggmärgen”

On 22 April, 2013 the Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet carried a story that Russian military aircraft had practised simulated bomb attacks on Swedish targets, near Swedish airspace on the night of March 29. The Russian exercise was the first of a series of events, including the Russian annexation of Crimea, that preceded and may have influenced changes in Swedish public opinion toward Russia, that was increasingly viewed as a threat.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how four Swedish newspapers, Svenska Dagbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Expressen and Aftonbladet, reported about the Russian exercise. Especially with regards to how Sweden and Russia was depicted in reports.
The method used is Ethnographic Content Analysis. Every article on the Russian exercise published between 22–30 April has been included in the study. Results show that Russia was viewed as a threat, undergoing changes and becoming more ambitious. Comparisons to the Soviet Union were common. The lack of response of the Swedish air force to the exercise was depicted as insufficient and surprising. Demands for more resources to the military and for Swedish membership in NATO were commonly made. This is in accordance with the theory of David L. Altheide about the use of threats as a culturally unifying theme, and risks as justifying certain measures. It seems possible that reports on the Russian exercise helped shape an increasingly positive public attitudes towards NATO and increased military spending.
Keywords: Russia, military exercise, Ethnographic Content Analysis, Svenska Dagbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Expressen, Aftonbladet


This study examines how the Swedish newspapers Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet report about hiv and aids. We start our analysis in the summer of 1987 when the famous designer Sigshten Herrgård reveals that he is hiv-infected, which causes a massive press coverage. To see how the reporting changes over time we compare the articles from that summer with how the epidemic was covered by the press in 1997 and 2007. Totally we have studied 355 articles. We chose the theme partly because of Torka aldrig tårar utan handskar (2012), a Swedish tv-serie about the lives and deaths of young homosexuals in Stockholm in the 80’s. It is based on a book serie written by the author and playwright Jonas Gardell who is critical to how media covered hiv and aids when it first came to Sweden. According to him the reporting was alarming and he refers to an article that described hiv as a punishment for people with an immoral lifestyle – homosexuals, prostitutes and drug addicts. We wanted to see if this really was what the reporting was like in the 80’s and what have changed since then. Our results shows that Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet often mention homosexuals, drug addicts and prostitutes in the reporting about hiv and aids. It is most common in 1987 but risky groups can be found in some of the articles from 1997 and 2007 as well. We can also see that the hiv-infected people very seldom get to express their view about the issue, instead it is experts, organizations and authorities that are the main actors as subjects in the reporting. We can determine that journalists often use words with a negative value in the articles about hiv and aids, such as promiscuous, non-human and reckless attitude. There has been an increasing amount of people getting hiv in Sweden, while the amount of articles in Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet have decreased.

Löpnr:KV18-9 Fin- eller fulmedier?

This study explores how the brand of a newspaper affects the perception of credibility for the content in the article. The idea was to compare a morning paper which the audience generally has a bigger trust in with a tabloid paper that is often perceived as less credible. The study includes articles from the morning paper Dagens Nyheter and the tabloid Aftonbladet.

Large parts of the study are based on previous research on media trust made by Maria Elliot and Oscar Westlund. According to their theories, aspects such as use, knowledge and expectations are factors that can affect trust in general and in media. In addition we also thought that the brand should be amongst these factors and added the expression brand credibility. Our intention was to investigate these aspects to try to find out what it is that affects weather an article is perceived as credible or not.

To do this, we conducted an experiment where 132 participants read an article from Dagens Nyheter or Aftonbladet, either with the brand visible or not. They were asked to answer questions about their media habits and their trust in media. After reading the article they answered questions about the article and whether they perceived it as credible or not.

Unfortunately, our study doesn’t show any clear results. The majority did perceive the content of the articles as credible, regardless of the newspapers´ brand. What we could see was when the brand was visible, people tended to perceive the content of the article as less credible. The results also show that the brands impact was different for Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet. Despite the low level of trust in Aftonbladet most of the participants perceived the article from Aftonbladet as credible. Also the majority of the ones who read the article from Dagens Nyheter perceived it as credible. Furthermore, they had a high level of trust in Dagens Nyheter despite low usage.

Also when we examined the factors age and gender we discovered that the brands had different impacts. We could see that younger people tend to have a greater trust in the articles from Aftonbladet, whether the brand was visible or not. For the older participants it was the opposite. They perceived the article as less credible when the brand was visible.

Löpnr:KH08-13 ”Det är i alla fall nån jävel som tänker på en”

Syfte: Att undersöka hur mediebilden av den medelålders kvinnan ser ut i damtidningarna i oktober 2008, både vad gäller text, bilder och hur dessa samspelar. Även undersöka de bakomliggande orsakerna till varför hon framställs på det sätt hon gör. Metod: Vi har gjort en kvalitativ analys med kvantitativa inslag. Sammanlagt har vi granskat mediebilden av 89 kvinnor uppdelade på de sex dagstidningarna Amelia, Damernas Värld, Femina, Laura, M-magasin och Tara. Dessutom har vi intervjuat chefredaktörerna och flera forskare inom bland annat medievetenskap och sociologi. Huvudresultat: Resultatet av vår undersökning kan sammanfattas i fem punkter, som tillsammans visar på hur den medelålders kvinnan framställs i damtidningarna.

Löpnr:KV12-16 ”Generalstrejker, blodiga upplopp och förbannade medborgare”
Löpnr:KV17-11 Du kan aldrig ana vad som hände sen!

The purpose of this study was to investigate clickbaits as an example of how traditional news media is being commercialized through the movement to online news. The online media demands a more frequently updated material, which results in challenges for the news producers. Because of the large amount of online news, news producers who’s material is online-based need to find more innovative ways to attract their audience.

One of these ways is to create headlines that make the reader curious and prone to click their way into the article. Our study aimed to examine the frequency of these clickbaits on one of Sweden’s largest online-based media companies, Nyheter24. We wanted to see which articles were published with clickbaits and whether the clickbaits had coverage in the articles or not. Through a quantitative content analysis we examined 350 headlines with associated articles under nine news categories on Nyheter24’s webpage.

We used theories of commercialization of media and news values to be able to understand the results of our study. The results showed that 31 percent of the examined material could count as clickbaits, based on the definition which we had formed. The largest amount of clickbaits was discovered in the category revolving scientific research, where nearly 60 percent of the headlines were clickbaits. The least amount of clickbaits were found in the foreign news, where the result was only 8 percent.

The study also showed that a total of 18 percent of the headlines included reinforcing words and expressions which gave the article in question a higher news value. In the category Internet, 47 percent of the headlines included reinforcing words while only 2 percent were found in the headlines revolving scientific research. We found that many of the headlines spoke to the reader directly, often through personal appeals. 31 percent of the total amount of headlines were focused on the reader and 25 percent of the headlines revolved around a normal person, who had experienced something sensational. The study also examined the amount of coverage the headlines had in the articles and the results showed that 47 percent of the clickbaits had full coverage. 10 percent could count as having no coverage at all. Considering the results of this study, we found that the articles published with a clickbait had lower news value based on the traditional news value criterias.

Key words: News media commercialization, news value, clickbait, headline.

Nyckelord: Kommersialisering av nyhetsmedia, nyhetsvärdering, klickrubrik, rubrik.

Löpnr:KV15-16 Världen anropar

Title: The World is Calling – A study of international news flow into swedish newspapers Authors: Ida Mikko & Daniel Ågren Level: Bachelor of Journalism Location: University of Gothenburg Language: Swedish Number of pages: 27 This essay aims to investigate the international news flow into Sweden through the key national news agency TT (Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå) and further through four major Swedish newspapers onto the public market. Our chosen method is a quantitative content analysis where we look at the output from TT and aforementioned newspapers with the goal to study and analyze differences. The relevancy of this topic can be explained through agenda setting theory, which shows us that the media has a powerful impact on public opinion and the political agenda. In an increasingly globalized world, no country stands alone. Swedish foreign news stems to a great extent from international news services (gathered through TT or directly by the newspapers themselves). More in detail, our study examines representation in terms of geography, topics, and primary sources in our analyzed media. We have found previous research which suggests that Swedish foreign news reporting strongly corresponds with the large international bureaus. Given the amount of material TT gathers from these agencies, TT gets to act as a primary and important gatekeeper to the Swedish language sphere in many cases. The examined newspapers show many similarities with TT in terms of news selection, however we also discovered some surprising differences which will be discussed in the essay.


Frågeställning: De frågor vi ville besvara med undersökningen var följande. Vad kostar det att rekrytera en journalist? Vad kostar det för de olika företagen att hålla sig med vikarier? Hur mycket pengar förlorar företagen genom att hålla sig med vikarier? Hur påverkas den enskilde journalistens ekonomi av vikariesituationen?

Löpnr:KV12-17 Redaktioner på repeat?
Löpnr:KV18-10 Klimatet på Facebook

The aim with this study was to investigate two established newspapers from Sweden and USA, more specifically Aftonbladet and USA Today. We wanted to see how these newspapers portray articles about climate change, which of the articles they chose to post on Facebook and their readers’ comments on the posts.

The study’s aim allowed us to analyze the interaction between the two newspapers and their consumers to see whether there exist any specific traits in Aftonbladet’s and USA Today’s way of constructing Facebook publications that result in a polarized discussion in the comment fields. Could the newspaper’s Facebook publications function as an arena to climate sceptics to openly express their opinions?

We worked with a combination of a quantitative content analysis and a qualitative text analysis to get our results. We estimated that this would be the best way to answer our question formulations and hypotheses. Our analyzing objects were articles about climate change published on Aftonbladet and USA Today during 2017 as well as Facebook posts with links to those climate articles and the audiences’ comments on the posts.

Initially our main hypothesis was that USA Today would publish, both on the website and on Facebook, more articles with a sceptic angle compared to Aftonbladet. We also believed that there would be far more skeptical comments in posts from USA Today. The results show that Aftonbladet had more skeptical comments, although USA Today, had a higher percentage of articles with a sceptic angle.

When analyzing the results, we discovered that articles published with a sceptic angel generated acknowledging response in the comment field and vice versa. How the newspapers choose to frame their articles have a vital impact on how the audience perceive the information.

The result of the essay allows us to draw the conclusion that Facebook publications made by newspapers can function as an arena of discussion to climate sceptics. It also shows that newspapers way of framing their Facebook publications create a significant effect on how the reactions and comments will turn out. The audience does not solely comment on the posts, they oppose.

Löpnr:KV19-1 ”Här är det rätt homogent och svennigt liksom”

Aim:​ The aim of this thesis entails investigating how public service journalists at three distinct newsrooms view ethnic diversity and its effects on the reporting process and the audience. This was achieved by examining the following four aspects; (i) The level of ethnic diversity in the newsrooms; (ii) Public service journalists’ opinion on ethnic diversity within newsrooms; (iii) The impact of ethnic diversity within newsrooms on the selection of news; (iv) Public service journalists’ opinion on the editorial composition and its effect on the audience.

Theoretical framework:​ The methodology used to analyse the results of our study is rooted in the framework of ethnocentrism, the representation theory, postcolonialism, orientalism, the agenda-setting theory and the theory of “we and them” in media.

Method:​ In accordance with the overall aim of the thesis, a qualitative research method was adopted. In-depth interviews were conducted on thirteen co-workers at three different Swedish television newsrooms across the nation and covered reporters, editors and editors-in-chief respectively.

The results of the study suggest that two-thirds of the newsrooms had a very limited representation of ethnicities among their staff – the most predominant are ethnic Swedes. One particular newsroom, however, showed a greater level of ethnic diversity. Nonetheless, they were very much dependent on interns to reach their desired level of ethnic representation at work. Furthermore, the interviewees unanimously agreed that ethnic diversity in the newsroom is paramount to the understanding and representation of their respective audiences. It enables a wide array of people to better resonate and relate to the content covered in the news. Moreover, the analyses suggest that recruiting staff solely based on the intentions of creating an ethnically diverse environment was not a top priority. The composition of employees at the editorials in terms of ethnicity had a significant impact on the selection of news. This was particularly evident in the interview sessions were the reporters explained that they are usually given authority regarding the decision of what content is to be covered. Thus, they argued that their choices are somewhat influenced by their background, upbringing, culture and personal experiences. Ultimately, the interviewees agreed that the composition of employees at the editorials did have an effect on the content covered and the audience in terms of identification, representation, and whether or not stereotypes were being amplified.

Löpnr:KV15-17 Modellen av en människa

In our study, we have examined the presentation of gender in the Swedish programs Modellpojkar and Modellflickor. Reality documentary programs about swedish models, produced for Swedish Public Service. Our theoretical point of departure was gender theory found in the literature by Anja Hirdman and Raewyn Connell. They presented the term gender as a non-biological take on how we as men and women are expected to act in different situations in life. We have also compared the material with Maria Nikolajeva’s theories about stereotypes and other research material regarding gender presentation in media and commercials in general. We approached the material using qualitative method. To increase empirical validity we used both a textual analysis and a semiotical analysis. The textual analysis was used to examine the dialogue and how the models spoke about their private life, profession and body ideal et cetera. The semiotical analysis was used when watching five photo sessions in order to discover gender presentation in a visual context. The result showed us that gender is reproduced in terms of body ideal much due to current demands in model industry. At the same time, the boundaries of gender roles are somewhat being modified

Löpnr:KH16-1 Tolkandets tid

This study examines the development of political news analysis during three routine periods, 2004, 2008 and 2012, using framing and mediatization as a theoretical framework. In order to examine this development, we have analyzed political news journalism in Aftonbladet, Expressen, Dagens nyheter and Svenska dagbladet – the four largest, nationwide papers. We aim to utilize previous research whenever possible and these four papers stood out from a cumulative research perspective. We chose this theme for the study partly because of the lack of research on political news journalism during between election periods. We saw this as an opportunity to provide new insight to the field of mediatization research. We wanted to see if there would be any correlation between our results and those of the election focused studies.
Our results show that while political news analysis has decreased slightly from 9 percent of political news journalism in 2004 to 8 percent 2012, overall, interpretative news journalism has increased. From 26 percent 2004 to 41 percent 2012. We can also see that framing politics as a game, rather than reporting the actual political issues, has increased from 41 percent to 48 percent 2012. In addition to this we looked at the number of direct sources in political news journalism. In our research we have found that there are no directly cited political sources in 69 percent of the political news journalism.
We cannot see a substantial change in the amount of political news analysis during our research period. But we have seen a growing tendency to frame politics as game, which can be attributed to the increasing mediatization of the political sphere. This has happened in concordance with the increase of interpretive approach to political news journalism. The amount of directly cited political sources is least prevalent in articles that frame politics as a game. This type of journalism is also vastly increasing in number, largely a result of mediatization.
All this leads us to believe that there has been a migration of interpretation from analysis to traditionally descriptive news articles

Löpnr:KH08-15 Jakten på god sportjournalistik

Det stängda landslaget – sanning eller myt? Metod/material: Kvantitativ innehållsanalys av kvällstidningarnas bevakning under fyra världsmästerskap. Djupintervjuer med spelare, ledare och journalister om hur relationerna mellan landslag och media har uppfattats. Vår strävan har varit att rymma ett brett spektrum av röster från de fyra mästerskapen. Resultat: Jämfört med 1990 har antalet artiklar skrivna i kvällspressen under 2000-talet ökat tredubbelt. Både Expressen och Aftonbladet kommer numera ut med en daglig sportbilaga, och har dessutom ytterligare publicering på internet. Samtidigt som mediebevakningen av det svenska fotbollslandslaget ökar uttalar sig spelarna i mindre utsträckning om det som händer utanför planen. Mer konkurrens, ökad omfattning och högre krav är de nya villkor journalister måste arbeta med. Parallellt med medias förändring har fotbollen professionaliserats. Spelarna spelar fler matcher, tränar mer och behöver mer tid för återhämtning i det tuffa schemat. I media dök debatten om ett stängt landslag upp någon gång under 2000-talets början. Den svenska landslagsledningen styrde upp medias tid med spelarna till korta officiella pressträffar. I det knappa utrymmet tvingas den växande journalistkåren trängas. Slutsatser: Sedan början av 1990-talet har stora förändringar skett för såväl fotbollen som media. Nya villkor för journalistkåren skapar en större efterfrågan på spelarna. Tillgången har dock minskat eftersom spelarna måste ägna mer tid åt sin roll som elitidrottsman. Efterfrågan blev till slut omöjlig för landslaget att tillgodose. Istället har de valt att styra upp mediekontakterna, vilket från medias håll har tolkats som att de stängt in sig. Diskussionen om det stängda landslaget tar sig helt olika uttryck beroende på vilken sida stängslet man står. Vår förklaring är att medias och fotbollens parallella utveckling går åt olika håll. Tillsammans driver de på en ond cirkel av allt sämre klimat dem emellan. Diskussionen blir då främst ett bevis på behovet av anpassning.

Löpnr:KV12-18 Där spårvagnen vänder.

Göteborgs-Posten reaches out daily to approximately 630 000 readers or visitors through its newspaper or other channels. Since they are the biggest news media in Gothenburg, we consider it fair to say that they have a certain obligation to cover all the geographical parts of the city. As GP readers ourselves it is not that hard to state that the coverage in fact is insufficient, with a focus on the central parts and a sparse picture of the suburbs. Although a considerable part of the inhabitants lives in a suburb,

Löpnr:KV15-18 ”Vem får kalla Zlatan zigenare?”

This paper examines the media image of the Roma people, through the use of a quantitative content analysis. The analysis examines headlines and sub-headlines that contain the terms ”roma”, ”gypsy” or ”EU-migrants” (in swedish) and other grammatical forms of those words. The study was performed in a programme called SPSS, where I could choose different variables (which I called categories) that would describe the different headlines. It was possible to choose multiple categories for each headline and for each headline, those categories that best described the headline were chosen. The result of the study showed the overall portrayal of the Roma people in the two newspapers Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet, differences between the two newspapers, differences over time and how the use of the different terms looked like. The categories were ”demanding/complaining/mentally violated (roma)”, ”exotification”, ”poverty/misery”, ”racism”, ”discrimination”, ”everyday/common news”, problematic (roma), culture, vulnerable (roma), genocide, ”those people (we and the others)”, ”prejudice”, ”sensation”, ”roma that is given something”, good for the society (roma), ”feel good”, ”the roma registry”, ”begging”, ”deportation” and ”not clear”. The study and the analysis were based on the theories that are the base of this paper, with the power of the stereotypes, post colonialism, agenda setting and framing serving as the most important theories. The result of the analysis showed that the Roma people are mostly being portrayed in negative contexts, are being stereotyped or exotified, There is a difference over time, where exotification and ”we and the others” become less common the closer you get to present time. The coverage of vulnerable Roma, racism and discrimination rise to the roof the closer you get to present time. Not only the negative contexts become more common, but the Roma people are also being mentioned more in articles about common, everyday topics – where they are not only representatives of the Roma people as a group and where their actions are not made in to sensational things. The differences between the two papers are not exceptionally big, but in those areas where you can see a difference, it’s clear that Aftonbladet prioritises those news that are interesting from a market point of view, while Dagens Nyheter focuses more on what is important according to the norm.

Löpnr:KV15-19 Allt om förlossningen, amningen, kärleken och karriären

In this bachelor thesis in journalism studies we explore how the role of the mother is portrayed in the swedish magazine Mama. Mama is marketed towards women and is one of Sweden’s most widespread magazines in the segment of children and parents. Every issue of this magazine includes a profile story portraying a famous mother. We have analysed twelve of these stories. With the method of qualitative textual analysis we have studied four areas of interest: the relationship between the mother and her career, the relationship between the mother and her children, the relationship between the mother and her partner and what part the journalist takes in creating the discourse surrounding motherhood in these portraits, regarding in what way questions are asked and what hidden premise that may shine through in remarks made by the journalist. Our main results include that most of the women are portrayed as a supermother, who can handle a very successful career whilst still taking the main responsibility at home. We can also conclude the norm of the conjugal family is still strong in our material. Furthermore the study shows that the journalists who have written the profile stories often take the role of a friend and entrusted both towards the interviewee and the magazine readers.

Löpnr:KH15-17 Neutral ton eller mustigt språk?

This bachelor thesis is a study of two Swedish newspapers reporting about the swine flu in 2009. The study covers all articles written by the medical reporters of Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet and published during 2009. The aim has been to compare the articles, using a method of text analysis called ECA, Etnographic Content Analysis, with regard to journalistic ideals of impartiality and a non-biased reporting. The study shows how the idealistic norms of journalism were set aside and that the reporting changed over time.

Löpnr:KV18-11 Nazister i nyheter

This bachelor thesis is a quantitative content analysis of the Swedish nazi group Nordiska motståndsrörelsen (NMR), their demonstration in Gothenburg on the 30th of September 2017
and the counter demonstrations against it. Using theories of framing we examined whether the demonstrations were framed in an episodic (event- or exemplar-oriented) or thematic (issueoriented) way, and whether it differed between newspapers. In addition to framing, we used theories of newsworthiness and commercialisation to analyse the results.

The way in which an event is being framed in the media influences how the public perceive the issue at hand and how they form opinions about it. Therefore, it is relevant to study how different events are framed and presented. In total we analysed more than 700 articles from 133 different newspapers published during a two week period before, during and after the demonstrations.

The results showed that the overall coverage of the demonstrations was primarily episodic— specifically episodic event-oriented. However, the counter demonstrations had a higher rate of thematic coverage than the NMR demonstration. Regarding the difference between newspapers, we found that tabloid newspapers to a higher extent framed the events as
episodic rather than thematic. Conversely, the daily newspapers had a higher rate of thematic rather than episodic coverage. However, the results showed no difference between local or national daily newspapers.

Our conclusion is that although the coverage of the NMR demonstration had a higher percentage of episodic framing, it is inaccurate to state that it was entirely the responsibility of
the journalists. Due to the refusal of NMR to speak to the media, journalists were required to turn to official sources such as the police instead. This led to the fact that the majority of the articles were written from a police perspective. As thematic framing often depend on demonstrators offering their point of view, coverage of the NMR demonstration was naturally less thematic.

Löpnr:KV19-2 I’m gonna make him a review he can’t refuse

We consider ourselves to be movie enthusiasts and both watch and read a lot of cinema. And since we share this interest in the motion pictures we spend a lot of time evaluating films we’ve seen and discussing films we’re about to see. And since time is the most precious aspect of life, if we decide to spend two hours in a movie theater we want it to be worthwhile. With this in mind we always take guidance from the people who supposedly would be the most eligible to tell us whether or not we should go see the film in question: The critics.

Even though film criticism is a subjective kind of journalism, we believe that there would have to be some sort of basic foundation on which the critics rely. That some aspects of the art form of the motion pictures always would be taken into accountability regardless of the critic and regardless of the paper for which he or she writes.

The purpose we had approaching this study was to determine how film critics write their reviews and what arguments they use when trying to convince the reader of agreeing with his or her opinion. We wanted to study how the critics discuss the films’ value and content, how they use rhetorical devices and how they differ. This we did by analyzing a total of 96 reviews divided on three Swedish media houses. We’ve established our study on the basis of the theory of doxa, the rhetorical tools ethos, pathos and logos, as well as genre theory and theory of content value.

Our main results include that the critics don’t actually differ that much in which arguments they use and how they compose their reviews. The rhetorical tool ethos – convincing by establishing a sense of affinity with the reader – was used in a vast majority of the reviews and there are strong similarities in which aspects of filmmaking they choose to discuss.


Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka bilden av den svenska bonden i tre dagstidningar och två kvällstidningar. För att få ett svar på detta har vi haft frågeställningarna: Hur ser mediebilden av den svenska bonden ut? Har den förändrats de senaste tio åren? Hur påverkar den allmänhetens bild av bonden? Hur påverkar den böndernas självbild? Vi har även arbetat med detaljerade underfrågor som syftat till att besvara frågorna ovan. Vi har utgått från idén att det skulle finnas en schabloniserad bild av bonden i media, men har varit öppna för möjligheten att det skulle visa sig vara annorlunda.

Löpnr:KV15-1 Svensk och norsk socialdemokratisk press under efterkrigstiden

This bachelor thesis is a comparative study of the Norwegian and Swedish labour pressafter the second world war. The Norwegian labour press has been more successful than the Swedish in the postwarperiod, and the aim of the study is to discover what the key reasons for this development are. The variables of interest in the thesis are mainly statistics regarding election results, partymembership and union membership, the overall situation for competition between newspapers, the organization of the labour press on a national level, the different rules regarding the state subsidy to newspapers and the extent to which the labour press in the two countries reaches readers of a different political preference. The main findings are that the Norwegian system for press subsidy has to a large extent encouraged competition between newspapers, which has gained the labour press. Theaftermath of the second world war was positive for the Norwegian labour press, and the Swedish labour press struggled with management at a central level during the 1980’s. In conclusion, this thesis challenges the established theory regarding press competition in Sweden, as it is not directly applicable on the Norwegian press.

Löpnr:KV15-20 Hålet i marken

In this study we have explored how Norrland and ”norrlandians” are portrayed in national public service news media. The method we have used is the qualitative textual analysis ECA (Ethnographic Content Analysis). This study has analysed Rapport’s cover of Northland’s mine in Kaunisvaara in Pajala, Norrbotten. Two main theories have been the focal point of this study: internal orientalism and news values. Our premise has been that ”norrlandians” and Norrland are subjected to stereotypical portrayals, and that these stereotypes are reproduced by the national news media. According to previous studies, this is the case in commercial national news media. Hence, this study has focused on wether this is also the case in national public service news media. To be able to map out if stereotypes are reproduced, we have applied four analytical themes, based on previous studies on stereotypes of ”norrlandians” and Norrland, on our material. These themes are: interpretative prerogative, how are ”norrlandians” portrayed?, how are other actors portrayed?, how is Pajala municipality portrayed? The main result of this study shows that some stereotypes of ”norrlandians” are reproduced, mainly that ”norrlandians” are passive, dependant on others and lack influence. The result also shows that some stereotypes are not reproduced, mainly the notion that Norrland is a place dominated by males.