Aim of thesis: Many studies, including Ljuslinder (2002), have revealed that disabled people
are seriously underrepresented in media. The aim of this study is to examine what strategies
Swedish public service-media use to include disabled people in their reporting. Nine people
with disabilities also share their experiences and views of representation. The public servicecompanies have, as a result of Swedish legislation, an explicit responsibility to include all the
population in their reporting
Theoretical framework: The main theories for this study are some relevant notions used in
the discipline of disability studies. Ableism describes prejudice against disabled people,
exalting the none-disabled body as the dominant norm. Intersectionality is the crossing where
different social categories such as gender, sexual orientation, religion or disability, affects a
person’s life. An individual can never be reduced to only one of these categories.
Methods(s): This study is based on three different methods: an extensive literature study on
what has been written on this subject before, a study of the policies for equality that are used
at the public service-companies (two of three companies agreed to share their policy, the
Swedish radio said no), and finally twelve interviews. The informants are: four disabled
people, five disabled journalists and three representatives for the public service-companies.
The legislation and broadcasting permits for Swedish public service media is also studied.
Results: This study indicates that neither the disabled journalists or the other disabled
informants feel like they are included in the content of public service-media. It seems like the
companies tend to look at disability as something different, not comparative to other
categorizations/discrimination ground such as gender or sexual orientation. Disability issues
needs to be treated the same way to reach success. Another conclusion of this study is that
that the issue of disability and inclusion often is regarded as a question of accessibility only.
Accessibility is important and must not be dismissed, still the issue of full participation is far
Our aim with this scientific study is to investigate how the editorial writers in Sweden
position themselves, in relation to the governing power during times of crisis. We hope
with this study to shine light upon the role of editorial writers as it is today, as it is during
crisis, and might be in the future.
In consideration of the fact that Swedish editorials does indeed have a political inclination,
it is interesting and relevant to investigate whether they do possess the ability to criticize
the leaders of society or those with power. Even though the editorial agrees with them on
a political level.
Our study will seek to find the answer to the hypothesis that, the majority of editorial
writers are critical to the governing powers during times of crisis.
To put our research into a greater context, we have chosen a theoretical framework
consisting of earlier research in a variety of fields. The existing definition of what an
editorial writer is and the role that they have in a democratic society, the changing world
of media and their part in crisis journalism. All of this with the agenda setting theory and
the rally round the flag effect in mind.
In our research we have chosen to use two methods, a quantitative method, and
qualitative method. This to investigate five different editorials in five different newspapers
during three different times of crisis.
Our results show that the majority of editorials are critical towards the governing power
during times of crisis, there by confirming our hypothesis. It also shows that political
inclinations do effect to which degree an editorial of the same political colour as the
governing party criticizes the power. However, it does not stop them from doing so. With
this result we can also confirm and enhance the editorial writer’s role in crisis journalism.
The aim of this thesis is to exam crisis journalism for children in Sweden. It focuses on the
Swedish public service television news program Lilla Aktuellt, which is an established news
medium aimed towards children. With the perspective that children have the same right to
information as adults, this thesis examines how Lilla Aktuellt creates access to the news
children are expected to have in a democratic society. Furthermore the aim is to study if Lilla
Aktuellt makes understandable and democratic crisis news and if Lilla Aktuellt’s crisis news has any common characteristics.
The method used is qualitative content analysis and the material is four crises with three
different broadcasts from each one. The theoretical framework is based on framing, crisis
communication and the social responsibility theory of the press.
The results were that Lilla Aktuellt has a well adapted language and is in general
understandable for children. However, it does not fulfil the democratic expectations applied
by this thesis. The causes behind the crises are not explained in depth and no exhaustive
picture is given. Lilla Aktuellt avoids using negative news angles and violent/gory images.
There is still, however, some usage of emotionally upsetting language and images. Lilla
Aktuellt addresses their target audience in a way that does not respect their right to complete
and accurate information. The broadcasts from the 00s talks about children, instead of
addressing the audience directly. This gets better with time, but instead Lilla Aktuellt starts
wrapping the serious information in cautionary words.
Aim of thesis: This study aims to examine how young girls are affected by influencers talking about
politics on their social media before elections. In recent times, it has become more common to see
various parties and party leaders on social media. Especially ahead of the 2018 Swedish parliamentary
elections. Previously it has been difficult for the parties to reach out to young people in Sweden.
Through social media, they can now more easily reach a younger target group. The topic we have
studied is unexplored, therefore the purpose of the study is to investigate how young girls are affected
by influencers talking about politics on social media.
Theoretical framework: We have used four established theories to gain a deeper understanding of
our subject. It’s Social Capital Theory, Third Party Endorsement, Agenda Setting Theory and The
Two-step Flow. During the analysis we applied the theories on our results in order to understand it
Methods: We have collected our material through eight different interviews with young girls aged
20-24. We chose these ages because it’s the influencers largest target group and those who take part of their content the most. The interviews were between 20 and 35 minutes long.
Results: All of the survey questions were answered during the study and we were therefore able to
get a result. The result is that young girls are not affected by influencers talking about politics on their social media. This is because the girls we interviewed believe that influencers do not have knowledge in politics. When it comes to other areas, fashion and beauty for example, the interviewees feel more affected by influencers, this is because they are considered to have knowledge in that area. Our results also show that our interviewees feel more confident in journalists than they do in influencers.
The purpose of this study is to examine how five Swedish newspapers portrayed the Black Lives
Matter (BLM) movement and supporting demonstrations during a time period between May 25th and June 14th, 2020.
The theory of framing, how people’s perception of a subject is affected by the media portrayal, is the
motivation behind this study. Theories about common news values and news angles are applied to
the articles. Additionally, quoted sources and descriptions of violence are investigated to determine if a protest paradigm, a pattern of news coverage that tends to focus on violence and disruption rather than the reason behind the demonstration, can be found in Swedish newspapers.
The study uses a quantitative content analysis of 266 articles about the Black Lives Matter movement
published by the newspapers Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Expressen, Göteborgs-Posten and Sydsvenskan. During the analyzed time period, major demonstrations were held in Sweden’s three
largest cities: Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. With a cumulative approach, the theoretical
framework has been operationalized to create a codebook for analyzing the articles.
According to previous research, there are many signs of a protest paradigm in American newspapers.
This pattern was similarly present in the Swedish articles, evident in their recurrent use of official
sources like politicians and police. However, in the analysis of all the articles about BLM, the
protesters were quoted more often than police. While in the articles specifically about demonstrations
in Sweden, protesters were more likely to be excluded. For example, protesters were more often
mentioned than quoted compared to the police sources. This study confirms signs of the protest
paradigm in the articles about the demonstrations, evident in the great focus on violence and
disruption and the lack of protester voices. Unlike previous research, all protesters are not blamed for
unlawful activity that occurred during the demonstrations. Swedish newspapers tend to carefully
distinguish provocators from peaceful protesters. Finally, the covid-19 pandemic affected the media’s
portrayal of BLM and the demonstrations. The global pandemic was frequently mentioned and often
used as a news angle in the articles.
Aim of thesis: The aim of this study is to investigate how the journalists at SVT Nyheter Väst experience their public service assignment in relation to geographical representation of the published news. We will fulfill our aim by studying journalists opinions about news selection and
evaluation. In addition to this we will ask the respondents about their thoughts on possible
consequences of geographical underrepresentation.
Theoretical framework: The thesis is inspired by earlier research concerning the same field. Our study will be based on three theories: the theories about news evaluation and selection, democracy and public service. The theory about news evaluation and news selection highlights the balance between
news that is important for the citizens and the news that usually attracts many readers, but
might not be as important. The theory of democracy defines the concept of democracy and
emphasizes the importance of media in a functional democratic society. Public service is
funded by the state and therefore is obligated to be impartial and objective in its news reporting. Public services’ most substantial challenge is to find a balance between news evaluation and democracy.
Method: The study was carried out using a qualitative interview method. We have designed an
interview guide based on our theories that has been the base when interviewing our respondents. The selection of respondents consists of reporters and editors at SVT Nyheter Väst. They are all in different ages, sex and have worked various amount of years at the editorials office.
Results: The results show that the respondents think highly of their public service commitments. They
believe it is important with media that can be entirely impartial and objective, especially
since the amount of information in the media society increases over time. Furthermore, the
study illustrates that the journalists prioritize news that solely affects the masses. Simultaneously it is important to represent the smaller communities as well, even though it might not concern as many people. The general view is that geographical underrepresentation can lead to several consequences, for example reduced faith in SVT Nyheter Väst and public service.
The purpose of this quantitative study is to find out how the media image of Sweden, Norway
and Denmark has been framed by the leading evening press in the other countries during the
initial three months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aims to answer which frames that
dominates the mediapicture, if Sweden’s, Norway’s and Denmark’s handling of the initial
three months of the COVID-19 has mainly been portrayed in a positive, negative or neutral
light and who is being interviewed in the news coverage.
The study aims to bring forward generalizable facts regarding the mediapicture of the
different countries and how the news has been framed. Therefore, a quantitative method has
been chosen since it offers good basis to systematically work through and analyze a great
amount of data and to fulfill the aim of study.
The theoretical framework in this study consists of framing, news evaluation and agenda
setting theory. These theories have contributed to fulfill the aim of the study.
Framing has been used to answer how the news coverage has been framed through different
lenses and that how the news is being framed also influences the opinions of the newsconsumer. News evaluation has been relevant for the study since it offers an understanding of why some events are deemed too have a higher news value than others. Agenda setting theory has been included in the theoretical framework partly since it is closely related to the theory of framing and also because it explains how the choices bigger news outlet make regarding which articles to publicize and how the general frame of those articles are designed also influences the choices smaller news outlets make when it comes to their daily work. It is therefore reasonable to argue the point that the journalistic choices the newspapers included in this study has made during the time interval the study analyzed also influenced the general opinion of readers not only exclusive to readers of the chosen newspapers.
The method use in this study is a quantitative contentanalysis. This method has been chosen
with the aim of answering the study’s purpose too find out if and how the media coverage of
the Scandinavian countries differentiates in different Scandinavian countries. Factors such as
the general tone in the article (e.g. positive, neutral or negative), which frames being used
and who is being interviewed and the interviewed statement has been coded in the
quantitative contentanalys that has been used.
The study has shown that a majority of the articles published during the chosen time interval
concerning the other countries handling of the COVID-19 pandemic has been negatively
framed. The study also shows that a majority of the articles published has been framed
through a public health frame. The articles concerning Sweden had the biggest share of both
negative articles and articles framed through a public health frame.
The study also shows that officials are the most commonly interviewed occupational group in
the articles included in the study. This was most common in the articles regarding Sweden
and this result is in line with previous studies.
The world is changing. It always will. Just like movement it won’t change direction unless a force, of some kind, will participait and change it. Just like Newton describes in his first law.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how important an education within journalism is
relevant to both editors and journalists, but also to which degree the journalists of today
utilizes the knowledge from having an academic education against a non-academic type of
According to the fact that our world and society is aiming towards improvement, this essay
will describe briefly how the education started, developed in the beginning and clarify how it
looks like in today’s situation.
Research according to the results from previous essays and thesis have been conducted. Mostly written by former students from the University of
journalism, but also by scientists within this topic. From this former research, following
theories has been assigned: The professionalization of the career, the democracy due to the
institute of journalism and the theory of different types of doxa due to social closure.
The method performed to accomplish this essay, is a meticulous investigation that has been
conducted during this last couple of months. Swedish journalists have participated in a survey
regarding whether they find the academicals useful in their daily work assignments. Also, a
survey has been dedicated to Swedish editors to investigate the importance of different types
of educations according to these.
The results that this thesis has brought are the fact that, in the eyes of an editor, an education
is important, but to have an academical one is less important. Due to the journalist’s
thoughts, the relevans is lower. They prefer to learn in form of practice and work.
The aim of this study is to examine the international digital media image of Sweden during
the corona crisis of 2020. The purpose is to gain knowledge about how the corona pandemic
has affected the perception of Sweden and discuss in what way it could continue to affect the
country in the future. The study is carried out by investigating the four following research
questions: (1) Has the image of Sweden during the corona crisis 2020 been positive, negative
or balanced? (2) Which themes and key individuals are defined in the articles? (3) How does
the image of Sweden vary between the different countries? (4) Has the image changed or
further developed in pace as the pandemic progressed?
The approach taken in order to answer these research questions is a quantitative content
analysis of articles published in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany and France.
The articles used in this study are collected during the months of April and September in the
year 2020 and they are collected from The Swedish Institute’s selected articles concerning
the corona virus and Sweden. Throughout this study, a total of 392 articles were encoded
with the help of the framing theory created by Gaye Tuchman and further developed by
Robert M. Entman (1993). According to Entmans definition, frames are about the selection,
observance, definition and formulation of a problem. The variables were emanated by several
various themes, frames, stereotypes and key individuals.
With the four research questions in regard, a conclusion could be drawn that the image of
Sweden through this pandemic has been fragmented. The statistics show that most of the
articles were neutral. However, we were able to verify that a majority of the articles analyzed
in this study were negative. The majority of the articles focused on the Swedish strategy of
choice during the pandemic and they often depicted the Swedish citizens’ behavior and the
number of deaths caused by the coronavirus. The most frequently used frames had to do with
either conflict or responsibility, while the most narrated stereotype was that Swedish citizens
are law-abiding. Throughout the study, the Swedish prime minister Stefan Löfven and state
epidemiologist Anders Tegnell were the key individuals that were mentioned most
When analyzing the results, we could see that it varied depending on two variables, time and
origin. For example, more articles were published in April in comparison to those published
in September. We could also identify that the articles published in April were categorized as
negative while those published in September were categorized as the contrary. The most
neutral image of Sweden could be found in the articles published in the United States and
France. The articles published in Britain were the most positive, while the ones published in
Germany were the most negative. We could also identify that in Germany, America and
Britain the most common frames were the responsibility frame and the conflict frame.
However, the articles published in France were mostly narrated with the human-interest
The aim of this thesis is to investigate how Sveriges Television, specifically Lokala Nyheter
Väst, is distributing its news between the 49 different municipalities in the Västra Götaland
county in terms of frequency, which subjects are covered in the news and how these subjects
are presented or framed.
The mission of Swedish public service is to have a broad supply of news that reflects the
entire country and all its municipalities. The mission includes, among other things, local and
regional news reporting. There is a general reduction in commercial local journalism around
the country, and this reduction of local media increases the responsibilities of public service.
Since 2014, Sveriges Television has been the only media to broadcast local and regional
television news, after the commercial TV4 discontinued its local and regional broadcasts.
This thesis explores whether or not Sveriges Television lives up to this mission, and the
To reach our result, we have employed theories on framing, news selection and news
evaluation. The method we have used is the quantitative content analysis. Our material is
collected from two synthetic weeks of Lokala Nyheter Väst’s TV broadcasts with 240 news
features in total. Rather than investigating the 49 municipalities individually, we have divided
them into groups based on population density and the number of residents who commute to a
larger city or municipality for work.
The result of our analysis shows that Gothenburg, which is the largest city in the county by
far, is portrayed in the media much more frequently than any other municipality. The news
regarding Gothenburg are also portraying a much broader variety of subjects compared to
other municipalities, or groups of municipalities. A conclusion can be drawn that the smaller
a municipality is, the more extraordinary the news have to be in order to appear in Lokala
Nyheter Väst’s broadcasts. There are also certain municipalities where all news are about one
subject, for instance crime, medicine or the environment. This leads to a potentially skewed
image of these municipalities, which can result in preconceptions and bias towards these 3 areas or cities. The result also shows that out of the 49 municipalities in Västra Götaland, three of them lack both local media within the municipality and representation in the material we investigated, hence being true so-called “white spots”, areas entirely lacking local media representation.