Kategoriarkiv: Journalistikgranskning

Tiden läker inga sår

Aim of thesis: This bachelor study is a quantitative content analysis of two local newspapers in Gothenburg; Göteborgs-Posten and GT. The main purpose of this study was to find out in what extent the residential districts appeared in the news, how they were presented and with what attributes. The study is longitudinal and includes articles from a synthetic month in 1978 and 2018. The research questions were 1) How often did the residential districts appear in the local news reporting? 2) With which attributes were the residential districts portrayed? and 3) Who/what actors were the source in the articles?

Theoretical framework and method(s): The thesis was partly based on an exploratory case study of Stockholms news media that concluded the suburb areas was structurally disadvantaged in the news reporting. Hence the premise of this study has been that the residential districts in Gothenburg appear and are described unequally in the local news reporting. By examine two newspapers with different organizations the study explored how and if the eventual inequalities were a result of organizational factors. By also comparing year 1978 with 2018 the study analyzed if the reporting was effected by societal factors.

Results: The study concluded the further away a residential area was the more seldom it appeared in the local news. Centrum dominated the articles in 1978 and 2018 in both newspapers. The most usual subject over time was Crime and accidents, however the subjects where more equally divided in 1978 compared with 2018, meaning the news report in 1978 included almost as many articles about other main subjects such as Culture and Construction. A pattern we discovered was that the areas with a bigger geographical distance to centrum appeared in more articles about crimes (in percentage) then areas close to centrum. The pattern was more distinct in GT. Additionally the study concluded it was generally actors from outside the area, for example politicians and representatives for authorities, that appeared as a source in the articles. This tendency was the same over time, for both organizations and for all neighborhoods, which led us to conclude there is an organizational news routine that has been present over time.

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”Wir schaffen das!”

During the refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016 the European Union experienced an unparalleled amount of refugee and migrant arrivals. ​As member states and political parties disagreed on how to respond to the migratory pressures, ​the parliaments ​2014​-​2019​ legislative ​term would be characterized by numerous internal conflicts.

The purpose of this study is to examine Swedish news coverage of the asylum issue at EU level during the parliamentary period of 2014-2019. We will examine how frequent the news coverage has been and how the issue has been framed by implementing a quantitative content analysis. The material that was analyzed consists of news articles from four major Swedish newspapers. For comparison we chose two daily national newspapers; Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet, and two tabloid newspapers; Aftonbladet and Expressen. We sampled content from five years of daily newspaper editions by selecting 20 constructed weeks, and using keywords to single out content relevant to our study. We investigated the prevalence of six generic frames described in previous research on framing common in media coverage of politics; attribution of responsibility, human interest, conflict, economic consequences, strategy and morality frame. We also base our quantitative content analysis in the theory of issue-attention-cycles, that are the way in which the media or the public pay attention to an issue over time.

The main findings in this study show that Swedish news-coverage of asylum issues on an EU-level follow a cyclical pattern, and that coverage of the issue peaked in the third quarter of 2015. The daily press accounted for 68% of the coverage on the issue and DN had an existing coverage throughout the parliamentary term of office, while the coverage by the tabloids was mostly concentrated in 2015 and 2016. Overall, the attribution of responsibility frame was most commonly used in the news published in the printed press by the four news outlets.

Keywords: Framing, issue-attention-cycle, media-attention-cycle, EU, refugee, refugee-crisis, Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Aftonbladet, Expressen, quantitative content analysis

En mångfacetterad image

This bachelor thesis asks the question of how is Sweden portrayed in three of the most influential American newspapers in three important political issues? This is done because there are reasons to believe that the international image of Sweden has been changed in certain aspects. The three political questions we have chosen to look closer into here are immigration, welfare and crime. We have studied if a number of articles has changed, who gets to make statements and if the reporting is in a positive or negative manner.

Through a quantitative analysis many articles published in the last ten years have been read and analysed. The articles were chosen because they contain the word “Sweden” and one of the search words “Immigration”,” Welfare” or “Crime”. The articles were original published in the three newspapers The New York Times, Washington Post and The Wall Street Journal.

The results show as suspected that the number of articles has increased in the last ten years. The largest increase has been observed in the political issues of immigration and crime but there has also been an increase in the welfare issue. A lot of articles have been published in years where large news events occurred, related to our subjects. Two examples are the migration crisis of 2015 and Donald Trumps statement about “Last night in Sweden”.

The results also show that the articles about immigration and crime are most cases written without positive or negative judgement. When the articles have contained judgement it has under immigration been as much positive as it has been negative. In articles with crime however the judgement has been mostly critical. Articles with the word welfare contain judgements in the majority of cases and the judgement has been equally positive and negative.

On the question of who is allowed to make statements in articles where Sweden is present it has been observed that it is mostly journalists/writers, politicians and experts who make statements. Few of the articles had a Swede make a statement.

The image of Sweden is a complex and multifaceted thing. If the image presented is fair or not depends on who you ask. However, our research shows that in most cases the newspapers themselves do not make judgement when reporting about Sweden. It is however a big possibility that when you constantly appear in certain context that this will change how the subject is viewed as stated by framing theory.

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Vad tycker du? Skriv till oss!

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the seemingly increase in public debate over the past two decades has affected the amount of opinion pieces in the paper edition of Aftonbladet.

The main questions we have answered in this study are the following; has the number of opinion pieces in Aftonbladets paper edition changed over the past twenty years, what topics and text genres are most frequent and has there been a change over time. Lastly; has the writers of opinion pieces changed over time.

We have chosen to use a quantitative content analysis to conduct this study. The empirical evidence of this study consists of 84 paper editions of Aftonbladet equally spread over the years 1997 to 2017. We used theories of digitisation, commercialisation, public orientation and agenda setting to be able to understand the results of our study.

The main results of this study shows that the amount of opinion pieces in the paper edition of Aftonbladet has decreased with more that 40 percent over the past twenty years, which can be explained due to the decrease of the text genre “letter to the editor”. The results also shows that the most common subject for the opinion pieces is political criticism. It was also the most common subject each year.

Results regarding the text genre showed that the letter to the editor where the most common overall. As mentioned before, this text genre decreased over the years, however still remaining the most common each year, most likely due to the short format of the pieces. The debate articles, columns and editorials did not change much over the years, but remained constant.

As for the writers of opinion pieces it was shown that nearly half of the writers were male, yet only a quarter were female. The remaining quarter was made up by the writers that could not be defined as neither sex. The most common type of writer was the private individual, most likely due to the great amount of letters to the editor. However this changed over time. As the letters to the editor decreased, the paid writers, such as journalist and columnists, increased, and during the past ten years becoming the most common type of writer.

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”Karaktär långt bortom sina år”

The aim of this analysis has been to investigate how Greta Thunberg and Malala Yousafzai are portrayed in news articles in five of Sweden’s largest newspapers: Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Expressen, Göteborgs-Posten and Svenska Dagbladet. First, 55 articles were analyzed with a content analysis. Out of the 55 articles, 8 articles were selected based on meticulously discussed criteria and a text analysis of these 8 articles was carried out.

The 55 articles were selected with help from a list of criteria, where 38 of these articles are about Greta Thunberg and 17 of them are about Malala Yousafzai. The articles about Greta Thunberg were published during the period February to April 2019, and the articles about Malala Yousafzai were published during the period of October to December 2014. The time periods were chosen based on the fact that these months were the months both of them had been published the most so far in Swedish news media. Theories about gender, representation and framing have been used to guide the study and analyze its results.

The results of the content analysis show that Greta Thunberg’s age is mentioned
a lot more than Malala Yousafzai’s age. The quantitative result also show that Greta Thunberg is referred to as an activist significantly more often than Malala Yousafzai, who is only referred to as an activist in one of her 17 articles. Both Greta Thunberg and Malala Yousafzai have the majority of all the articles’ quotes, and there is also a lot of focus on their person rather than their activism.

The qualitative result showed us that Greta Thunberg and Malala Yousafzai doesn’t have a lot in common with the theory about how women or young people are portrayed within the media. The articles write about them in a positive character. The media’s fascination with these young activists can be directly connected to them as a unique phenomenon, rather than how typical female adolescents are portrayed.

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”Den här bilden är felstavad”

The main purpose of this study is to examine people’s comprehension and interpretation of different kinds of pictures in Swedish news. More specific to study the possible differences that people might register between user-generated content – also referred to as amateur imagery – and professional news photography.

Theoretical framework: Our analysis is based on the theory regarding rhetoric within the field of imagery. We argue that images are able to create different meanings, tell stories and persuade its observers. Another theory we used is the framing theory which implies that all human beings interpret the world differently based on our previous experiences. In this case our interpretation of an image will always depend on the context in which it is presented to us.

Method: Qualitative in-depth interviews with five respondents presenting their own opinions about amateur images and professional images within Swedish news media. During the interviews the respondents were introduced to six different pictures. Half of the photos were taken by amateur photographers and half of them were taken by professional photographers. The respondents did not know whether they were presented to an amateur picture or to a professional picture.

Results: When presented to pictures taken by both amateurs and professional news photographers the respondents in this study rated the professional pictures as better than the amateur pictures. The reason why is because the professional news pictures were perceived as more informative and better able to tell a story because they generally had a higher level of technical quality. Pictures that seemed to lack these qualities were perceived as less trustworthy and not informative due to bad technical quality which made it difficult for the respondents to grasp the situation of the picture.

Amateur pictures and professional pictures were said to evoke similar feelings although amateur images could come across as more violent and chaotic. Therefore, amateur images were also said to be more suitable for being published in evening tabloids rather than in the daily broadsheet newspapers or public service media, if published at all.

Papperstidningens överlevnad i ett nytt medielandskap

The aim of this thesis is to analyze what content the newspapers choose to put on their frontpages, in order to maintain their current reader and at the same time gain new ones.

In order to do this the thesis is based on a quantitative analysis of the frontpages of four big Swedish newspapers; Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Expressen and Svenska Dagbladet. Two of them are distributed every morning to its paying subscribers, and two of them are distributed to the stores during the day and are thereby being financed by the single buyers who later buy them. Thus, the nature of these newspapers is very different, and therefore one could also assume that the frontpages of them differs too. In total 56 frontpages were part of this study – that is two synthetic weeks of news analyzed. To make the method replicable the study contains further explanations of thoughts and procedures.

The study is based on earlier research on the newspapers’ frontpages and theories of news valuation, theories about changing media habits, digitalization and commercialization, research about the format changes that has affected the newspapers, research about new kinds of journalism – such as slow or constructive journalism, research about media logic and targeting audiences, research about the Swedish journalists and their interests and ideals, theories about the media’s economic challenges and also theories about the changes that are affecting media.

One can say that the newspapers are battling on several fronts for their survival. The demographic composition of the buyers makes their readers become older and older. At the same time the newspapers are faced with an ultimatum: find new readers or die. Meanwhile big changes are transforming the structure of the media market, where the digitalization make the newspapers more and more unattractive at the same time as more free alternatives are offered online – making even the advertising revenue difficult.

A conclusion one can make from this study is that the frontpages are the display window for the newspapers. It is their way to reach out to the audience and therefore they play an important role in their existence. But even though big changes have occurred in the media landscape, the newspapers are covering more or less the same subjects as back in the

80’s. Politics, economy and crime are the most occurring subjects and a story has a bigger chance of making it to the first page if it contains negativity, surprises and personification. One can also notice tendencies of using different kinds of journalism – such as slow or constructive journalism – in order to be competitive on the market for buyers and subscribers.

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This study is a continuation of a well-known study, “Riktig våldtäkt”, published by the ethnologist David Sandberg in 2003. Sandberg made a content quantitative analysis of the reporting of rape by the largest Swedish newspaper, Dagens Nyheter, during the years 2001- 2002.

Sandberg found that the majority of Dagens Nyheter’s articles on rape were reports on assault rape, committed by unknown perpetrator(s), in public space. Contradictory to the news articles, the official crime statistics from the same time period, showed that the majority of rapes were domestic and by a perpetrator known by the victim. Sandberg concluded that media had a powerful role in shaping public opinion when it used sensationalism as criteria for choosing what to report.

Due to this power of media to shape and maintain public opinion, we found it interesting to investigate if Sandberg’s result would hold true to the reporting on rape taking place, by the same newspaper, during the years 2017-2018.

To be able to compare our result with Sandberg’s, we used the same principles for the selection of articles and the same criteria for our analysis as he did.

Our theoretical framework consisted of a social constructivist perspective. We also use the agenda theory, the news value theory, journalism ethics and gender theory (rape is a display of violence and power, not sexual lust).

Sandberg’s conclusion that Dagens Nyheter had a sensationalist focus on assault rape, changed in 2017 and kept up all of 2018. The articles dealing with domestic rape by a known perpetrator, which better mirrors the factual crime statistics, got more frequent, side by side with the overwhelmingly voluminous reporting concerning the two famous men, misusing their power to commit and get away with rape.

Social media has also opened up a new arena both for perpetrators and victims. It can be used with both good and bad intentions. Filmed rape can, by the offender(s), travel the web making the rape seemingly endless for the victim. But it can also be a powerful tool in putting the issue of rape and sexual harassment high on the public agenda. The #Metoo-movement lead to some sensational news of famous culture and tv-personalities, which ended up in court.

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Pengar vs Jämställdhet

The aim of this study is to form an understanding over how media chooses what sport to broadcast and why male athletes dominate when it comes to live broadcasting of sports.

This study is made with a qualitative method. Through semi-structured interviews with the sport directive of two Swedish media companies, Discovery and TV4/Cmore, and with the rights manager for SVT Sport. Each interview was made individually.

The purpose of the interviews is to gain knowledge about how the selection process takes place when it comes to what sport to live broadcast, and why some sports get more TV-time and acknowledgement than others.
We have two media companies representing the commercial corporate market and also Swedish Television (SVT) which is financed by Swedish taxpayers. This gives the study at least two points of view when it comes to form an understanding of the selection process.

Theories about economy, what decides the content in the media, the audiences importance, news value, sport marketing and research about the difference on how women and men are displayed in media will be used as guidance to gain understanding to why the decisions that forms what sports we are able to watch on television and online are made. The theoretical framework also stands as a foundation for the constellation of the interview.

Results: The study shows that the number, or estimated number, of viewers for each broadcast has an impact on what sport that is to be broadcasted /which sports that is broadcasted on live television. It also has an effect on what advertisers the media companies can attract and how much each advertiser is willing to spend on a broadcast. Economy is therefore a factor when it comes to the selection of sport. Although the audience and viewers have a slight difference in meaning to the commercial media companies and to Swedish Television. It is confirmed that the number of viewers for a TV-broadcast is important for the media companies to get a sense of if what they broadcast is of relevance to the audience or not. Both when looking at it through a money perspective, but also in a competitive perspective

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Klimatvakna nyheter

Scientific evidence shows a connection between an increased frequency of intense natural disasters and man-made climate change. The purpose of this study is to see if – and to what extent – swedish press reports about climate change in their news coverage of natural disasters.

By doing a quantitative study of articles from Sweden’s four largest newspapers (Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Expressen and Aftonbladet) we want to see how frequently the printed press, as part of their purpose is to inform and educate the population, mentions climate change as a causal factor when reporting on natural disasters.

For the purpose of this study, we chose the disaster categories storms and tropical cyclones as we believe this gives us a wide selection of articles that cover disasters both domestically and internationally. We also wanted to see the development over time. Therefore this study covers a time period of 20 years, between 1 May 1999 and 1 May 2019. In total, our study is based on 894 news articles about storms and tropical cyclones.

The study is done from the basis of a number of theories in the journalistics research field, such as framing, gate-keeping and agenda setting theory, to name a few.

Among the results we can see that the mention of climate change is rare within news articles that report on storms and tropical cyclones. However, the articles that actually do mention climate change, tend to appear when there are a few days between the occurrence of the storm and the publication date of the article. Almost half of the articles that brought up climate change, where published four days or more after the storm.